Validating copyrighted scales
Researchers who have examined attitudes toward AD have constructed scale items specifically for particular studies.Such scales are useful, but lack validation in multiple samples, do not encompass the entire attitude construct, and lack evidence for convergent and divergent validity.  measured nurses’ attitudes using the semantic differential technique, which focused on affect.This new culture construes personhood as “a standing or status bestowed upon one human being, by others, in the context of relationship and social being” [1, page 8].An alternative to the biomedical view of dementia as a collection of neuropsychological symptoms reflecting brain pathology, this psychosocial perspective affirms the unique personal histories of individuals living with dementia in particular social environments.  showed that staff working with residents using the Time Slips creative story-telling method in 5 nursing home facilities had more positive views of persons with dementia at the end of a 10-week period than staff who had engaged in their usual activities at 5 control facilities.
Each of these carries a valence: pleasurable to unpleasurable affect, favorable to unfavorable cognition, and supportive to hostile behavior .However, little is known about how attitudes toward dementia compare across samples, or whether such attitudes form a construct that is distinct from ageism.These areas cannot be fully explored without a reliable, valid instrument to measure dementia attitudes.Contact with people with dementia among college students  and caregivers [25, 27] is correlated with these more positive responses, particularly when these relationships are strengthened with the kind of communication that occurs in programs that encourage creative expression [2, 4].These findings suggest that attitudes toward dementia have positive elements, and that programs that encourage meaningful contact with persons with dementia can foster attitude change.
These scales are psychometrically sound, although social desirability, item transparency, obsolescence, and limited generalizability have proven problematic [32–34].